Affiliation Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. Human trafficking and other forms of extreme exploitation, including forced labor and forced marriage, now collectively under the terminological umbrella “modern slavery,” are reported to affect an estimated 40.3 million people globally, with 29.4 million considered to be in situations of forced labor [1]. Of course, some of these images are hyperboles and stereotypes, but they are rooted in truth. Trafficking is a form of human slavery, manifested largely through the sex industry but also in labor. MOU, Please try again soon. News about human trafficking, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Human slavery did not end with the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. After being exploited, many trafficked workers are encumbered by physical and/or psychological health problems and debt. The discussion that follows focuses primarily on trafficking of labor migrants and exploitation, but the core features underpinning exploitation, power, control, and abuse, are applicable to other forms of human trafficking (forced sex work, forced marriage, for armed conflict). Sidebar to the article Crime Victim Awareness and Assistance Through the Decades by Stacy Lee. Through the declaration of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has promised that efforts will be dedicated to reducing poverty, ensuring healthy lives, and, most encouragingly, promoting decent work. No, Is the Subject Area "Employment" applicable to this article? Journal of Human Trafficking is a high-impact journal and supports progress towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs). nation, drug trafficking will continue to flourish in other regions. Additionally, as recruitment processes or networks become more established, they can become a regular labor conduit, potentially feeding people into exploitative situations [40]. In 2007, Polaris instituted the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) where callers can report tips and receive information on human trafficking. Human trafficking is a vicious crime against a person’s human rights and has been denoted as a form of modern-day slavery. Please try after some time. This organisation, highlighted the effects of human trafficking. ABSTRACT: Human trafficking, or modern-day slavery, is a global problem with broad reach that is often underrecognized in the United States. Submit an article. Exploitative practices are commonly sustained by business models that rely on disposable labor, labyrinthine supply chains, and usurious labor intermediaries alongside weakening labor governance and protections, and underpinned by deepening social and economic divisions. It is not easy. Continuing its great tradition of enriching the scholarly discourse surrounding issues of social and global justice, the . Human trafficking is a hidden crime as victims rarely come forward to seek help because of language barriers, fear of the traffickers, and/or fear of law enforcement. 2000- Free the Slaves, an American charity organisation of Anti-Slavery International, was launched in the United States. Copyright: © 2017 Zimmerman, Kiss. Articles On Human Trafficking. Government can play a role in restricting migration, such as Nepal’s migration bans affecting younger prospective female migrants [17], or can promote migration through, for example, the Bangladeshi government’s Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which subsidizes recruitment fees for females migrating to numerous Gulf States [18]. A more specific focus concerns the phenomenon of “domestic trafficking” (trafficking involving U.S. citizens or lawful The economic burden of work-related injury and illness on states is also substantial, with global estimates indicating a worldwide price tag of US$2.8 trillion [23]. By Sarah Becker. Although extreme abuse virtually defines the business of human trafficking, I would argue that there is a spectrum of abusive behavior ranging from this trafficking extreme to other forms of abuse that may not involve “modern-day slavery,” but which can be morally unacceptable and psychologically and emotionally damaging. • Human Trafficking Webliography (Panigabutra-Roberts 2009). Understanding Human Trafficking and its Victims . Irregular or illegal migration status can be used to threaten and coerce workers. Although the practice of human trafficking has a long history, it has only been since the enactment of the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (part of the Palermo Protocols) in 2000 that a concerted effort has been made to examine and evaluate interventions to counter human trafficking. Trafficked individuals are rarely given a contract, and if one is provided, they may not be able to read or change it [38]. Early discussions about trafficking in persons focused almost solely on sex trafficking of women and girls and drew primarily on law enforcement responses. Trafficking cases are categorized under a variety of laws, most commonly Articles 600, 601, and 602 of the Penal Code, but determining the scope of labor versus sex trafficking is difficult as the current collection and distribution of comprehensive law enforcement data does not separate forced labor from forced prostitution convictions (UNODC, 2009a, 2009b; U.S. Department of State, 2012a). In this issue of the Journal, 2 separate papers call our attention to the daunting challenges involved in identifying and helping victims of human trafficking. And, importantly, the impact of exploitation on the health and wellbeing of a person who has been trafficked depends on the combination of types and severity of the acts she or he suffers (Fig 1). For example, 91% of Bangladeshi migrants reported multiple migration-related debts, including labor brokers’ fees [50]. Human trafficking and labor exploitation are substantial health determinants that need to be treated as preventable, drawing on public health intervention approaches that target the underlying drivers of exploitation before the harm occurs. In this introduction to the Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, we describe the magnitude of the problem, discuss the complex characteristics of trafficking, indicate the harm and associated health burden of trafficking, and offer a public health policy framework to guide robust responses to trafficking. In the second paper on the topic, Salami and colleagues focus on the psychological problems secondary to trauma in trafficking victims. Results: A total of 33 articles on human trafficking as defined above were published in 14 social work journals between 2000 and 2011. Fig 2 depicts factors associated with labor exploitation across a migration process, dimensions of exploitation, and various dimensions of harm. No, Is the Subject Area "Global health" applicable to this article? The second wave of the anti-sex trafficking movement is still active. Sidebar to the article Crime Victim Awareness and Assistance Through the Decades by Stacy Lee. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Browse full-text Human Trafficking articles and other academic articles in Inquiries Journal. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Debts and other financial obligations, including for medical care, can increase survivors’ vulnerability to further exploitation [49]. Moreover, theoretical or policy frameworks are required to look specifically at the ways that individual, group, and structural factors (including economic, social, legal, and policy-related aspects) influence exploitation and health along a migration trajectory, which can guide our search for evidence to inform interventions [28–31]. However, the recent development in terms of defining the menace proved a difficulty that demonstrates continued human exploitation. But human trafficking is now understood more broadly to occur in a wide array of low- or no-wage hazardous labor. Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. We urgently need to know more about the health burden posed by exploitative, low-wage, and hazardous labor, and, most importantly, the associated risk factors, especially in Asia and Africa—locations where some of the most exploitative labor occurs [63]. It is worth noting, however, that while structurally driven social, economic, and gendered power imbalances underpin exploitation more generally, they often manifest differently between different forms of exploitation. Over half of the world’s 215 million young workers are estimated to be in hazardous sectors including forced sex work and forced street begging [11]. All registration fields are required. Human trafficking is the fastest growing industry in the world.8,9 It's estimated that 800,000 people are trafficked in the US each year, with 1 million children being exploited and coerced into the commercial sex trade annually. Ultimately, however, in this introductory paper, we assert that human trafficking is a global health concern. Editor’s Note: This is the second article in a three-part series looking at the problem of human trafficking, its social impact and potential solutions. Search in: Advanced search. Yes The database contains more than 45,000 articles from 57 journals, 46 published by the APA and 11 from allied organizations. Article 14 2008 Human Trafficking in China Susan Tiefenbrun This Article is brought to you for free and open access by UST Research Online and the University of St. Thomas Law Journal. In fact, the contemporary amalgam of mobility and low-wage labor fosters many opportunities for labor exploitation. Human trafficking is the form of modern slavery, and it disgusts all the good-souled people, but today we have come up with a list of real life human trafficking examples and stories. personal protective equipment, Provenance: Commissioned; part of a Collection; externally peer reviewed. 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